Overview of Iowa Workers' Compensation Law
The lawyers of Gilloon, Wright & Hamel practice workers’ compensation law all over the state of Iowa. Iowa work comp law provides a legal framework to provide monetary compensation and medical care for workers who suffer job-related injuries. Work injuries can be caused by a single traumatic event, or be the result of cumulative trauma or exposure to dangerous conditions.
Common job-related injuries include:
Old work injuries that are getting worse.
Work aggravations to pre-existing conditions.
Scheduled injuries of all types, including injuries to the arms, elbows, hands, legs, knees, and feet.
The remainder of this section will provide an overview of Iowa workers’ compensation law. The details of Iowa workers’ compensation law are very important and very complex, and small factual differences can also be critical.
More information about work comp is regularly added to the “FAQs About Workers’ Compensation” section of this website, and to our “Iowa Workers’ Compensation Lawyer Blog.” However, you should not take any action based on this website or our blog without obtaining advice from a knowledgeable attorney.ARISING OUT OF AND IN THE COURSE OF EMPLOYMENT
All injuries that arise out of and in the course of employment are covered under Iowa work comp law. As a general matter this means that any injury that occurs at work and is caused by work qualifies as a workers’ compensation injury. The legal and factual standards for what qualify as a work injury have been extensively litigated, and potential claims should be examined very carefully to determine whether or not they qualify as a work comp injury.
For example, a pre-existing problem which was not originally caused by work, but which is substantially aggravated by work activities can end up being at least partly covered as a workers’ compensation injury.WEEKLY RATE
The weekly rate of compensation for an injury is determined by looking at the worker’s average earnings for the first 13 weeks of representative earnings prior to the injury. Certain types of payments to the worker are not used in calculating the weekly rate including fringe benefits, reimbursement of expenses, irregular bonuses, and the value of overtime above the straight time rate.
The average of the prior 13 representative weeks is then determined, and that average weekly wage is applied to the Iowa Workers’ Compensation Commissioner’s “Rate Book.” The Commissioner’s Rate Book takes the average weekly wage, the worker’s marital status, the number of exemptions the worker is entitled to, and based on these factors indicates the weekly rate at which the worker should be paid. The weekly rate is usually roughly equal to a worker’s net after tax weekly income.HEALING PERIOD AND TEMPORARY TOTAL DISABILITY BENEFITS
If a worker is injured and unable to work he is entitled to receive healing period (HP) or temporary total disability (TTD) benefit payments while he is off work.
If the employer is able to provide appropriate light duty work while the worker is recovering, the worker is not entitled to receive HP or TTD payments.PERMANENT PARTIAL DISABILITY (PPD) BENEFITS – SCHEDULED INJURIES
Once a worker’s post-injury medical condition has reached maximum medical improvement, then his eligibility for HP or TTD payments ends. Instead the worker is entitled to receive permanent partial disability (PPD) benefits to compensate him for the permanent effects of the work injury.
The Iowa Workers’ Compensation system has two main types of injuries: scheduled injuries or unscheduled injuries.
The different types of scheduled injuries and the maximum amount of PPD benefits that a worker can receive for those injuries is as follows:
Leg. . . 220 weeks of PPD benefits.
Foot . . . 150 weeks of PPD benefits.
Arm . . . 250 weeks of PPD benefits.
Hand. . . 190 weeks of PPD benefits.
Eye . . . 140 weeks of PPD benefits.
Loss of the second eye. . . 200 weeks of PPD benefits.
Loss of hearing in one ear. . . 50 weeks of PPD benefits.
Loss of hearing in both ears. . . 175 weeks of PPD benefits.
Thumb. . . 60 weeks of PPD benefits.
Index fingers. . . 35 weeks of PPD benefits.
Middle finger. . . 30 weeks of PPD benefits.
Ring finger. . . 25 weeks of PPD benefits.
Little finger. . . 20 weeks of PPD benefits.
Big toe. . . 40 weeks of PPD benefits.
Any other toe . . . 15 weeks of PPD benefits.
Facial disfigurement . . . 150 weeks of PPD benefits.
Loss of both arms, both hands, both legs or both feet, or any two thereof in a single accident . . . 500 weeks of PPD benefits.
Fortunately, most work injuries do not result in the complete loss of any of the body parts listed above. As a general matter when a worker has suffered an injury that results in a partial disability to a body part, the amount of PPD to be paid is based on the percentage of functional loss to the body part according to the AMA Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment (5th Edition).
For example, a worker could have a hand injury that is evaluated as a 20% functional impairment to the hand. Based on these facts the worker would be entitled to receive 38 weeks of PPD benefits. (Hand worth a maximum of 190 weeks x 20% functional impairment = 38 weeks of PPD benefits).PERMANENT PARTIAL DISABILITY BENEFITS – UNSCHEDULED OR INDUSTRIAL DISABILITY INJURIES
Injuries to parts of the body not listed in the schedule set out above are frequently called unscheduled or industrial disability injuries. Common unscheduled injuries include shoulder injuries, back injuries, neck injuries, head injuries, hip injuries, psychological injuries and chronic pain syndromes.
If a worker has suffered an unscheduled injury, the emphasis for determining damages shifts from only evaluating the physical functional impairment to instead determining the reduction in potential earning capacity. Assessing the loss of the potential earning capacity involves analyzing the totality of circumstances, including the injured employee’s age, education, qualifications, experience, motivation, loss of earnings, severity and location of the injury, work restrictions, inability to engage in employment for which the employee is fitted, and the employer’s offer of continuing work or failure to offer continuing work.
PPD benefits for unscheduled injuries are generally paid based on a maximum of 500 weeks. For example, if a worker is found to have suffered 50% industrial disability or loss of earning capacity, he is entitled to collect 250 weeks of PPD benefits.SECOND INJURY FUND CLAIMS
Iowa workers’ compensation law also provides for special additional compensation in certain situations where a worker has suffered multiple injuries. The law concerning these Second Injury Fund claims is fairly complex, but generally works as follows:
As a starting point a worker must have suffered a loss in the past involving a hand, arm, foot, leg, or eye. This starting loss can be either work or non-work related, and it can be traumatic or non-traumatic.
The potential Second Injury Fund claim is then triggered when the worker suffers a workers’ compensation injury involving a different hand, arm, foot, leg, or eye.
The employer is only responsible for the regular scheduled injury value of the work injury.
However, the employee can also bring a claim against the Second Injury Fund which is administered by the State of Iowa. The Second Injury Fund is liable for the unscheduled or industrial disability value of the two combined injuries, less a credit for the scheduled value of the two injuries.
For example, a worker may have suffered an old left hand injury that resulted in a 50% disability of the left hand. The worker then suffered a work injury to the right hand resulting in 50% disability to the right hand. For purposes of this example we will assume that the combined industrial disability effect of those two injuries is that the worker has a 60% industrial disability. Therefore, the Second Injury Fund valuation analysis is that since the worker has a 60% industrial disability that would entitle him to 300 weeks of PPD benefits. However, these 300 weeks of PPD must be reduced by the scheduled injury value of the two hand injuries. Each of those hand injuries is worth 95 weeks of PPD benefits, or a total of 190 weeks of PPD benefits. Therefore, the worker is entitled to 300 weeks of PPD benefits from the Second Injury Fund, less a reduction of 190 weeks of benefits for the scheduled value of the two hand injuries for a net recovery to the worker from the Second Injury Fund of 110 weeks of PPD benefits.
If a worker dies as a result of a work injury, the employer and insurance carrier are liable for several types of benefits:
The employer is responsible for any medical expenses relating to treatment of the injury that led to the employee’s death.
The employer is responsible for burial expenses. The employer’s liability is limited to 12 times the statewide average weekly wage at the time of the worker’s death.
The employer is responsible for paying the surviving spouse weekly compensation benefits for the life of the spouse, or until the spouse remarries.
If there is not a spouse, the employer is responsible for paying weekly compensation benefits to the children or other dependents of the decedent. The benefits for the children or other dependents generally terminate when those parties reach the age of 18.
Iowa law also provides for equitable apportionment of the weekly benefits between the spouse and other dependents.
A review-reopening is a type of workers’ compensation claim for a worker who previously settled his claim, or received an award; and who has suffered a worsening of the original injury. In this situation the worker can bring a review-reopening action to try to obtain additional compensation based on the worsening of the original work injury. The worker has the burden of showing that the condition has worsened, and this can be done in several different ways. For a scheduled injury the worker needs to show that the functional disability has increased. For an unscheduled or industrial disability injury, the worker can show either the functional disability has increased, or that the worker’s ability to earn money has decreased because of the injury.
There is a time limit for all review-reopening claims. A petition to start the review-reopening action must be filed within three years of the last payment of weekly benefits by the employer or insurance carrier.MEDICAL BENEFITS
In addition to weekly compensation payments, an injured worker is also entitled to have all of the medical care expenses relating to the work injury paid by the employer or insurance carrier.
The employer has the right to select the medical care providers. The employer has the duty to provide medical care in a prompt and convenient fashion.EMPLOYEES VERSUS INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS
Workers’ compensation protection applies to all employees, but not to independent contractors. However, an employer cannot avoid the obligation to provide workers’ compensation benefits by simply labeling an employee as an independent contractor. Iowa law provides for a multi-part test to determine whether or not an alleged independent contractor is actually an employee. There is also a special test for determining when owner-operators of trucks are independent contractors or employees.JURISDICTION AND INJURIES OUTSIDE IOWA
Employees injured while working in Iowa are entitled to Iowa workers’ compensation benefits even if the employer is not a resident of Iowa.
Additionally, employees who are injured outside of the state of Iowa can also be entitled to Iowa workers’ compensation benefits if the employee or employer have certain connections with the state of Iowa.NOTICE
One of the initial requirements for every workers’ compensation claim is that the employer must have either actual knowledge or formal notice of an alleged workers’ compensation injury within 90 days of the occurrence of any injury.
Iowa law does provide for extensions of this 90 day notice time limit under certain circumstances.STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
A worker must file a petition for workers’ compensation benefits within the statute of limitations time limit or lose their right to ever recover any weekly benefits.
There are two general statute of limitations:
If the worker has not been paid any weekly benefits the petition must be filed within two years of the date of injury.
If the worker has been paid weekly benefits, then the petition must be filed within three years of the last payment of weekly benefits.
Iowa law does provide for the extension of the statute of limitations time limit under certain circumstances.QUESTIONS
Call or email us now, and our lawyers would be happy to talk to you about your Iowa workers’ compensation case, and answer your questions without charge or obligation.